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Metabolic Syndrome

How diets made from purified ingredients influence the phenotypes of the MS in commonly used rodent models.

A quick look at a crowd of people shows that many of our fellow humans are carrying around too much excess weight. The prevalence of obesity is at epidemic levels in the developed world, and obesity may be the root cause of or precursor to other diseases such as insulin resistance, abnormal blood lipid levels (hypertriglyceridemia and reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol), and hypertension (high blood pressure). The term ‘metabolic syndrome’ (MS) is used to describe the simultaneous occurrence of these diseases and people with the MS are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. It is estimated that individuals with the MS spend over $4000 per year in treatment and to make matters worse, the prevalence of the MS is growing at an alarming rate, even in obese children.

The costs of treating the MS are clearly growing, and it is no surprise that the research community is seeking animal models that mimic the human phenotype so that potential therapies can be tested. Because of the pivotal role that diet plays in causing the MS in humans, most metabolic disease animal models do (and we believe should) use diet as a way to precipitate this syndrome. Though this was not the case decades ago, today, most diet-driven animal disease models are generated using open source, purified ingredient diets. The open source nature of purified ingredient diets allows researchers around the world to compare data from different studies, since the diet formulas are generally freely available to the public (this is in contrast to chow diets, which are generally ‘closed,’ meaning the formulas are generally kept secret). In addition, purified ingredient diets have very little variability from batch to batch (compared to chows), and so help to minimize data variability.  To read more, see our Product Literature.

Product Literature

Type of Diet Commonly Used Strains Phenotype Comments
Purified ingredient diet, 30-60 kcal% fat with various fat sources SD rat, Wistar rat Obesity BW differences between DR and DIO rats apparent between 2-10 weeks on diet. Fat type can impact weight gain.
Chow with added fat to equal 48 kcal% fat  ZDF rat Obesity and diabetes Males develop diabetes on standard chow, but disease is more robust on higher fat diets. Females require diet with at least 48 kcal% fat to develop diabetes.
Purified ingredient diet, 45-60 kcal% fat with various fat sources C57BL/6 mice Obesity/hyperglycemia BW differences between high fat and low fat diets groups appear as early as 1 week on diet. Hyperglycemia occurs around 4 weeks.
Purified ingredient diet, 10 or 58 kcal% fat with various fat and CHO sources A/J mice Obesity resistance Do not become obese despite caloric intake similar to C57BL/6 mice.
Purified ingredient diet, 10 or 58 kcal% fat with various fat and CHO sources AKR mice Obesity and insulin resistance Become obese on high fat diets. They are more glucose tolerant but more insulin resistant, compared to C57BL/6 mice.
Purified ingredient diet, 32 kcal% fat SD rat Hypertension Hypertension and obesity developed after 10 weeks on high fat diet.
Purified ingredient diet, 8% NaCl Dahl SS rat Hypertension Hypertension developed after 2-4 weeks on diet.
Purified ingredient diet, 60% fructose SD rat, Wistar rat Hypertension Hypertension developed after 6-8 weeks on diet.
Purified ingredient diet, 60 -70 kcal% sucrose SD rat, Wistar rat IR/hypertriglyceridemia Both IR and hypertriglyceridemia after 2 weeks on diet.
Purified ingredient diet, 60 -70 kcal% fructose Golden Syrian Hamster IR/hypertriglyceridemia Both IR and hypertriglyceridemia after 2 weeks on diet.
Purified ingredient diet, high saturated fat, 1% cholesterol, 0.25% cholic acid C57BL/6 mice Atherosclerosis/ Hypercholesterolemia Hypercholesterolemia and mild atherosclerosis after 14-18 weeks on diet.
Purified ingredient diet, 0.1 - 1.25% cholesterol LDL receptor KO, apolipoprotein E KO Atherosclerosis/ Hypercholesterolemia Hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis after 12 weeks on diet.
Purified ingredient diet, high in saturated fat, 0.05 - 1% cholesterol Golden Syrian Hamster Atherosclerosis/ Hypercholesterolemia Hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerotic after 6 weeks on diet.
Purified ingredient diet, high saturated fat, ~0.3% cholesterol Hartley Guinea Pigs Atherosclerosis/ Hypercholesterolemia Hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis after 12 weeks on diet.

See full table with references in product literature.

Ready to speak with a scientist?

Holly 0947

Jia-Yu Ke, Ph.D.

Project Manager and Scientist
jia-yu.ke@ResearchDiets.com
Mike 0923

Michael A. Pellizzon, Ph.D.

Senior Scientist
michael.pellizzon@researchdiets.com
Hyeran 0975

Hyeran Jang, Ph.D.

Project Manager and Scientist
Hyeran.Jang@ResearchDiets.com